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LINC (Language Instruction for Newcomers) 发音笔记
米娅 2009年9月26日 20:19:13

按:这是我在LINC学习时记得关于英语发音笔记。我重音、元音读不准,开始我读,老师都听不懂我说什么,离开时总算把老师说明白了,后来有同学和老师争论还找我当翻译,找我当翻译的好处是不好听的话我不会去翻的,所以,有我当翻译事就不会闹大。一个网友说我是trouble-maker, 其实我是个trouble-solver, or trouble-saver

1.     Basic

1.1   Syllables

1.2   The schwa (混元音) sound []

The schwa sound is like the vowel in nut and come, but it’s usually shorter.

e.g.:  woman  women  education  photograph  analysis

We pronounce the blue vowels as schwa. In many unstressed syllables, the vowel sounds is schwa.

2.       Stress

2.1 Word Stress

   When a word has two or more syllables, we pronounce one of the syllables the strongest. We say the strongest syllables has the STRESS.

2.2 Reduction of unstressed syllables

Many unstressed vowels are a schwa sound [sp1];

Some unstressed vowels “disappear” when the next sound is [r],[l].

2.3 13 and 30

   The –teen numbers (13,14,15,16,17,18 and 19) can have the stress on either syllable.

   To make a –teen number easier to understand, we stress the last syllable, but when we count, we stress the first syllable of –teen numbers.

2.4 Compound Words and Terms

   two-word nouns e.g.: phone number

   When two nouns are together, the first word is stressed.  

   When a noun is made of two smaller nouns, the first noun usually keeps its stress, and the second noun usually loses its stress.

2.5 Word Forms

   When the first syllable loses the stress, it becomes weaker and changes to a schwa sound, the second-to-last syllable have stress, e.g. allergy, allergic.

   Vowels often become a schwa sound when they lose their stress because of a word ending.

2.6 Basic sentence stress

   The word that is most important to the meaning of the sentence usually has the strongest meaning.

2.7 New Information

   Words that give new information usually have strong stress;

   Words that do not give new information usually do not have strong stress.

2.8 Contrastive Sentence Stress

    Sometimes we give our sentences a special meaning by strongly stressing one word. It’s like using the word not.

3.       Reduction

3.1   For

Small words (for, can, do and to) are usually not very important to the meaning, so we usually pronounce them quickly.

Many small words have two different pronunciations: a FULL pronunciation and a REDUCED pronunciation.

In most places, we use the reduced pronunciation of “for”, but we use the full pronunciation at the end of a question.

3.2   To [tu:] [t]

Two ways to pronounce

Reduced to [t is a schwa

1)      At the end of a sentence, full pronunciation;

2)      The next word starts with a VOWEL sound, use FULL pronunciation;

The next word starts with a CONSONANT sound, use REDUCED pronunciation.

Most of the time, use REDUCED pronunciation.

3.3   can [kn] [kn]

We use the full pronunciation of “can” in short answers. But in most places, we use the reduced pronunciation.

3.4   can vs can’t

Can’t doesn’t have a reduced pronunciation.

I can go.

I can’t go.

We use the reduced pronunciation of can most of time.

Can’t have more stress and a full pronunciation.

3.5   Do [d], [du:]

“Do you” pronounce “dyou” [d]

Most of time, use [d]

When the next word is you or your, “do” often becomes only a [d] sound.

In short answers and when it’s an action verb, we use the full pronunciation.

But most of the time, “do” is only for grammar, so we usually use the reduced pronunciation.

3.6   Or

Two ways to pronunciation. Full pronunciation [or], Reduced pronunciation [r].

The reduced pronunciation sounds like just a quick [r] sound.

Most of time, we use the reduced pronunciation.

3.7   And & an

The reduced pronunciation is the same for both words: [n].

It’s a schwa sound [];

Most of time, use reduced pronunciation.

3.8   Pronouns & possessives (1)

Many pronouns and possessive adjectives have a full pronunciation and a reduced pronunciation.

Most of time, we use the reduced pronunciation of he, him, his and her. But at the start of a sentence, we use the full pronunciation.

He [hi] [i]; him [him] [im]; his[hiz] [iz]; her [hr] [r]

3.9   Pronouns & possessives (2)

We usually use the reduced pronunciation of them, you, your and our.

Our [wr][ar]  you[yu][y]  them[m][ m]   your[yor][yr]

3.10  want to, going to & got to

want to [wan], going to [gn] (the last  is a schwa), got to [gad]

When “want to” is at the end of a sentence, we usually use the full pronunciation. But in other places, we usually use the reduced pronunciation.

4.       Linking and Consonant Clusters

4.1   Linking Consonants

e.g.: …talk like…  one long [l] sound

1)      When the same sound comes at the end of one word AND the start of the next word, we pronounce them as ONE longer sound;

2)      How do we pronounce two of these sounds together [p, b, t, d, g, k]?

When one of these sounds [p, b, t, d, g, k] comes right after another, we do not separate them, and we do not add an extra vowel. We join the two sounds together.

e.g.: a big train […gt…], September […pt…], a cab driver […bd…], credit cards […tk…]

4.2   Consonant + Vowel

1) When one word ends with a consonant sound and the next word starts with a vowel, we pronounce them together.

   It sounds as if the final consonant moves to the next word: come in (it sounds line “co-min”)

3)      Moving the last sound to the next word is especially important when a word ends with TWO consonant sounds and the next word starts with a vowel sound.

e.g.: … form and return it…. We pronounce the m at the start of and.

4.3   Would you, Could you & Did you

Could you = couldja [ku]

Would you = wouldja

Did you = didja

Linked and reduced which is normal one

Usually, we also reduce the vowel of you. You = schwa []

Linked and reduced pronunciation of each sentence is the more normal one.

4.4   Initial Consonant Cluster (two or three consonant sounds together)

Reet – Treet (get your mouth ready for the [r] sound before you start the [t] sound)--- Street

4.5 When a word ends with a cluster of three consonants, it can be difficult to the consonants, usually the [t] or [k] sound.

   Gifts [gifts] [gifs]  tests [tests][tess] asked [skt] [st] both correct

   When a word ends with a consonant cluster, and the next word starts with a consonant sound, sometimes we make it easier by not pronouncing one of the sounds.

   This often happens with a [t] sound at the end of a word. [t] is silent.

4.5   Final Consonant clusters

e.g.: …gifts are… tests are…

We always pronounce the s ending because it is important to the grammar of the sentence.

5.       Intonation (语调、音调)

5.1   Yes/No & wh-question

YES/NO questions usually go up at the end (rising intonation).

Wh-questions usually go down at the end (falling intonation).

Is this the right street? Why is their plane late?

5.2   Statements & polite requests

When you make a statement or give information, your voice should usually go down at the end. When we want to make a polite request, our voice sometimes goes up at the end.

5.3   Alternative questions

A question asks someone to choose between two or more things.

Do you want juice(rising) or coffee(downing)?

5.4   Pauses

Words that go together to say one small idea are thought groups. We can pause between two thought groups, but we don’t pause in the middle of one thought group.

5.5   Low-rising

Hello Bill (down a little, then up a little), That’s quite a bandage.

We usually use low-rising intonation when we pause, when we say the name of the person we are speaking to, and when we have more to say about something. We usually use falling intonation when we say a complete thought.

6.       Sounds and Spelling

6.1   Final –s/-es

When s or es does not add a new syllable to a word, we use [s] for some words, and [z] for other words.

When s or es add a new syllable to a word, we always use a [z] sound ([z] or [iz])

6.2   Final –d/-ed

Verbs that do not end in a [t] or [d] sound, do not add a new syllable when we add d or ed.

Verbs that end in a [t] or [d] sound, add a new syllable when we add a or ed.

6.3 Silent consonant.        


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